It is effortless to plant peas; they do not require much space and are financially very profitable. Peas are a pod fruit of the Pisum Sativum and, most commonly, in a small spherical shape. Peas are yellow or green, and a pod contains several peas.
Peas are naturally sweet legume fruit that has immense health benefits due to the rich vitamin and antioxidants content.
Peas are best planted in the spring when the ground is thawed. Plant pea seeds around 4 to 6 weeks before the last spring frost when the soil temperature is at least 45 degrees Farehnhite. However, too wet of soil can prove to be harmful if the ground is damp plant seeds in raised beds. Peas plant can withstand some snow and cold, but several days of low temperatures could be damaging. You can also plant pea seeds in late summer or early fall i.e., around six weeks before the first fall frost.
Plant peas in a fully sunny area as it makes the peas turn out sweet. The soil must be well-drainable and avoid wet soil as it can promote rot. Add a layer of compost or manure into the ground before planting peas. Wood ashes and bonemeal can be added because peas need potassium and phosphorus.
Before planting peas, soak them in water overnight for improved germination. Pea seeds must be planted around 1 inch deep and 2 inches apart in rows spaced around 12-14 inches apart.
- Prepare a support system for the peas in advance as they climb fences and trellis once the plant is between 2 to 8 feet tall.
- Do not let the pea plants dry out but also avoid watering too much.
- Remove weed by hands, so the pea plant roots remain undisturbed.
- Practice crop rotation.
- Temperatures above 80 degrees Farehnite do not allow a nurtures growth.
Peas are usually ready to be harvested after 60 to 70 days of planting. Once the flowers are bloom, peas would mature anytime, so keep a lookout for the right time and harvest then. Peas are best picked in the morning and when they are bright green.
To pick peas, hold the vine with one hand and use the other hand to pull off the peas.
Peas can only be stored in the refrigerator for around five days, whereas they can be kept for longer if frozen. Store your peas in a paper bag and then wrap it in plastic.
Pea plants can catch several pests and diseases like many other crops. Here is a list to inform you about the most common problem and it’s the solution:
- Mexican bean beetles
- Aphids is an insect type of pest that causes the leaves to turn yellow and fruits to turn out distorted. The insects produce a sticky material called honeydew, where soot and black mould is formed. To avoid this condition, grow companion plants and use high-pressure water spray to knock the insects off plants.
- Mexican bean beetles are an insect that makes the leaves skeletonized and causes dark holes on the pea pods. These beetles can be removed by hand, or you can use a proper wasp. Destroy the badly infested plants.
- Wireworms are insects that affect young plants and seedlings. Stunted, wilted, or hollowed seeds and eaten roots are the ultimate effects of these worms. To control this issue, provide well-drained soil, remove any plant debris, and practice crop rotation.
- Fusarium wilt
- Powdery mildew
- Downy mildew
- Fusarium wilt is caused by a fungus, it causes the plants to wilt, and the leaves turn yellowish. Eventually, the plant dies, and growth is affected. To prevent this disease, destroy any affected plants, and avoid excessive nitrogen usage. You can also use the resistant seed varieties and make sure to disinfect the tools before using them.
- Powdery mildew is also a fungal disease that causes white spots to appear in the leaves’ upper surface, and eventually, the plant might turn yellow, get stunted, or even die. Use resistant seed verities and remove any infected plants. Make sure the crop receives a good air circulation.
- Downy mildew, also a fungal disease, causes angular and yellow spots on the leaves’ upper side. The undersides of the leaves turn a purple/grey or white colour. Downy mildew can be avoided by removing any plant debris, use resistant varieties, and avoid watering overhead.
Types Of Pea
Among the many types and varieties of peas out there but knowing the most common one is essential; here is a list:
The three major types of peas are:
- English peas
- Sugar snap peas
- Snow peas
Some minor pea types that are under significant kinds are namely:
- Wando (English)
- Little Marvel (English)
- Lincoln (English)
- Snowbird (snow)
- Grey sugar (snow)
- Sugar ann (sugar snap)
Among the immense health benefits of peas, high blood pressure prevention due to increased nutrients like magnesium, calcium, potassium, etc. is remarkable. Peas also help in digestion, build immunity, and are suitable for the heart. They are enriched in iron, which gives body strength and combats against fatigue. Peas are good for eye vision, skin, and help in weight loss.
The protein and other nutritions are a reason behind the increased demand for peas in the market. Peas are eaten in various ways as roasted, shelled, and even raw. They are used in vegetables and cooked with rice too. Peas are a favourite snack of many people when sprayed with some salt and pepper.
With the sweet flavour and savoury texture, peas are used in many houses holds for dishes. Planting/growing peas is easy to work and does not require much area. One plant results in many fruits and can also lead to more than one harvest. The initial cost of planting peas is very affordable, whereas the income is profitable and worth the effort.