Green Chillies, commonly known as chillies or hot pepper, is the oldest grown crop in the US. It is also the nightshade family member, Solanaceae, often confused as a vegetable, but it is the plant Capsicum’s fruit. Here in this article, we will briefly discuss the method of Plant Green Chillies.
Chillies are a commonly used fruit that is used to add heat to the dish. It is originated by Mexico and considered among the first self-pollinated crop. Chillies contain the compound called capsaicinoids that provide the intensity in the taste of the fruit. Plant Green Chillies are quickly grown crop that comes in different shapes, colour, texture, and flavour.
Green Chillies or hot Pepper is a warm-weather plant and can be well grown in the soil rich in organic matters with a neutral pH. The hot pepper plant nurtures well under the full Sun with the temperature around 65°F. The best way to plant green chilli is indoor for 6-8 weeks before transplantation.
Preparing the bed two to three weeks before transplantation brightens the chance for the healthy development of plant green chillies. The well-drained, loamy soil with the ideal pH between 6.0-7.0 helps plants to reach harvest successfully. Before transplantation, add compost mixture and well-rotten manure to the ground for preparing the planting bed. Epsom salt remains effective in germination and can be added to the soil. Use fertilizer, such as 5-10-10, contains phosphorus boosts the plant’s healthy development.
Like tomatoes, pepper also demands deep plantation for the same reason that the seedlings are leggy. Sow the seeds deep enough, like 2 inches in the soil, that the set of the bottom leaves eminent above on the ground, space rows 24-36 inches apart. Sow more than one seed in a pot or a deep container. The perfect time to sow the seeds for plant green chillies is between February to April, which provides the soil’s higher temperature for smooth germination and water the plant to even the surface. Once the seedling emerges after 6-8 weeks, the young plant is ready to transplant. Hot pepper is a thirsty plant that requires ample water for healthy growth. Provide an adequate amount of water around 1-2 inches per week and let the soil drain water for the rest of the days.
Regular watering is required for a hot pepper plant for a healthy root system. Hot pepper nurtures well in warm weather; chilly weather leads to the destruction of the plant. The seedlings demand 1-2 inches of water per week to keep the soil moist. Refrain overwatering that can lead to the mishap to the fruit. Mulch is suggested to retain most of the soil. Don’t let the soil dry as it leads to the flower drop. Heavily watering is recommended, once the flower blooms and fruit begins to grow.
The right temperature for the plant is around 60°F that helps in the smooth germination. Protect the young plant from the frost and cold weather, and cover the seedlings with fleece or cloth.
Regular weeding encourages the rapid growth of the plant. It also remains helpful in increasing the production of the fruit.
Hot pepper can easily survive in the soil, which has a neutral pH. The fertilizers with phosphorus are preferable, but a high amount of nitrogen reduces the yields.
The hot pepper is a fruit that can be picked between two to three months or 60-95 days. The time between sowing and reaping hot pepper is 8-10 weeks, but the fruit’s colour varies as they mature. Regular picking around three-four times in a week of the fruits at the peak time assures the long cropping period. The best way to identify when to pick the green-coloured pepper, the immature stage, is when the fruit is firm. The red-coloured pepper (mature stage) can be harvested when they reach a height of 3.5-4 inches and firm. The red pepper is the spiciest one than all the other peppers.
A sharp knife is usually used to gently cut it out of the plant but avoid pulling to damage the plant. A short stub of the stem can be left with the fruit.
Hot peppers can be stored in a dry place with a temperature of around 0 – 4 Centigrade that can easily preserve vegetables for more than eight months. To store the peppers in the refrigerator, make sure not to wash and slice it; only clean the fruit’s skin. The period of storage can be extended up to 10 months by refrigerating it in the plastic bag. It can be left in the ground post maturity, too, but it can only be used if the fruit remains firm.
- Add fertilizer compost mix or a bone meal with phosphorous to prepare the seedbed before plantation.
- Avoid excessively dry soil and prefer moist soil but keep it away from waterlogging.
- The maintenance of temperature, i.e., 60° F or thereabouts, helps in smooth germination.
- Use a soaker hose for a sufficient amount of water.
- The ideal pH of the soil is 6.0-7.0 to avoid the fail attempt of growing fruit.
- Protect the fruit from unexpected late frost that can cause harm to the plant.
- Avoid planting tomatoes and peppers in the same soil.
Hot pepper is an easy to grow fruit for any gardener, but it is not a problem-free plant. Hot pepper is afflicted with the problems that can cause significant harm to the plant even after the ideal condition for the growth. The most common problems can be diseases and pests.
The fungal diseases that cause significant harm to the crops are Phytophthora root rot, anthracnose, and verticillium wilt. To prevent the loss, avoid waterlogging, and balance the pH of soil.
Pepper maggots, thrips, tropical white mites are the primary troublemakers for the plant, and to prevent the loss, place a collar around the plant and hose them off the plant. Using pesticides is also a sufficient remedy to protect the plant.
Types Of Green Chillies
Aji Amarillo Aji Amarillo is the chillies pepper with yellow and orange skin with a fruity flavour. The ideal time to pick the yellow hot pepper is around 60-65 days.
Cayenne Pepper Cayenne Pepper is the chillies pepper with red skin used to add heat in the dishes. The ideal time to pick the cayenne pepper is around 70-73 days.
Jalapeno is the cylindrical chillies pepper with green skin commonly used in cuisine to spice up the taste. The ideal time to pick the jalapeno pepper is around 80 days.
Green Chillies or Hot Peppers are easy to grow plants and natural sources of iron. It improves the skin regime and speeds up metabolism. Green Chillies is famous worldwide for economically perfect for every class. It is a crop that can be preserved for a long time, and the cost of preservation of the fruit is comparatively less than another fruit.