Beans are commonly known as snap beans or string beans. The plant of bean belongs to the family Fabaceae. Mostly all the green beans are green in colour, but there are many different varieties of beans depending on the colour like yellow, red, brown and purple. Yellow beams are also called wax beans.
Green beans are an essential part of every garden. The reason behind it is that the plant of green beans is unchallenging to grow even in small spaces. The green beans are incredulous productive. The plants are tender and are produced by people over many years. These annual plants have been used for food purposes for centuries.
The leguminous bean plants are rich in nutrition. The plant is considered as a good source of food worldwide. The seeds of bean plant are rich in proteins, folate, iron, carbohydrates, calcium with a very low amount of fats. Vegetarians eat beans daily because it is considered as a good source of proteins.
The beans are categorized into the following types:
- Pole Beans
- Bush Beans
Pole beans can reach to the height of 10 to 15 feet. They grow in ascending order as climbing vines. Due to their growing style, support or staking is required for them. Pole beans produce more yield crop. They are more resistant to diseases. More maintenance is needed for them.
Bush beans grow as bush and compact style. The maximum height of the plant may reach to about 2 feet. Due to their growing style, the bush beans do not need any support system. Bush beans are easy to plant and grow but produce less yield. However, the plants require less maintenance.
Beans are more comfortable to grow and inexpensive. They are simple to prepare and harvest. There is no rocket science for planting and harvesting them.
All types of bean plants are planted on the same terms and conditions.
The suitable time to plant beans is after the first frost of spring. The soil must be warmed and clean. The cold and moist soil is not favourable. The beans plant do not survive the indoor germination. The reason is that the seedlings are very delicate and fragile, and transplanting can damage them. So it is better to sow seeds outdoors.
The soil pH level is preferable to be acidic. The temperature must be between 48 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. For the plant of pole beans, support should set before planting.
Sow the seeds of bush bean plant 1 inch deep. The spacing among the rows must be 2 inches. For pole beans, depth must be 1 inch with a spacing of 3 inches between the rows. To avoid any disturbance to the fragile pole bean plant, set a support system such as tepees or stackings. The process of seed germination takes the time of almost 5 to 7 days.
Bush beans and pole beans will be ready for harvesting after 50 to 60 days and 60 to 90 days after sowing, respectively. Harvesting is not favorable in very hot or cold weather.
Beans can be stored in the refrigerator up to one week. Make sure to keep the beans in air-tight and plastic bags. The bags must be moist-free. The period of 3 months can be managed and balanced easily. Washing beans affect the quality and freezing process, so do not wash them before refrigerating. Canning is another option to store the beans.
- Water the plants regularly.
- Fertilize them, if necessary. But, the high nitrogen content is not recommended.
- To retain moisture, mulch the soil around the bean plants.
- Practice crop rotation.
- In hot weather, stop harvesting and cover the plants.
Pests and Diseases
The common pests and diseases of bean plants are as follows:
Bacterial brown spot
Bacterial brown spot is a condition in which necrotic spots have appeared on leaves. These spots are small and brown with yellowish outlines. Crop debris removal is a solution to prevent this disease.
On the underside of leaves, small spots have appeared which turn in to necrotic spots later on. Red-brown lesions may be visible. Give seeds antibiotic treatment to prevent this condition.
Bacteria cause bean rust. The symptoms of this disease include small yellow and white spots. In case of severity, the leaves may drop off. Remove the weeds and practice crop rotation.
Black Root Rot
The common symptoms of this disease are the appearance of lesions. The colour of the lesions is red-purple at the start, and then it turns dark grey to black. These lesions cause the wilting of leaves, stunted growth, and defoliation of leaves. If these conditions persist, ultimately the death of plant may occur.
The viruses attack the plants and cause a reduction in the growth of the plant. The leaves become distorted, and the appearance of yellow spots is seen on the leaves. Light green and dark mottled patterns may be visible on the leaves. Infected seeds can transmit these viruses.
In the management of this disease, plant more resistant varieties.
Aphids are the insects that attack and live on the underside of leaves. Leaves become yellow in case of high infestation. Honeydew is a sugary and sticky substance secreted by these insects. This honeydew enhances the growth of moulds on the plants.
To avoid them, use sparling of water on vigorous plants. If the small area is infected, then cut that part of the plant. Use resistant varieties.
The larvae of corn earworms damage the flowers and buds—the caterpillars’ attack on both the upper and lower sides of the leaves.
To prevent these insects, keep a constant eye on the plants and monitor them. Chemical treatment may require.
The spider mites may be visible as small moving dots. These mites attack the underside of leaves. The leaves turn yellow and may drop off from the plants.
Crop rotation is helpful in the treatment of pests and diseases.
The beans are evergreen food and packed with lots of health benefits. The importance of beans cannot be denied or ignored.
Few are the essential benefits and uses of beans:
- Beans are low in calories and help in weight loss and the reduction of belly fats.
- Beans significantly reduce the cholesterol level of the body and improve the health of the heart. These beans lessen the risks of heart and chronic diseases.
- Beans reduce the risks of diabetes, obesity and overall mortality rate.
- Beans are the excellent source of iron so eating the beans regularly promote fertility and pregnancy.
- The folate content in the beans fights with depression.
- Antioxidants and vitamin K reduces the bone fracture and promote bone health.
It is concluded that beans are easy to grow, with several health benefits and outstanding productivity.